Quick-Start Guide

This guide provides a quick peek at Hudi’s capabilities using spark-shell. Using Spark datasources, we will walk through code snippets that allows you to insert and update a Hudi table of default table type: Copy on Write. After each write operation we will also show how to read the data both snapshot and incrementally.

Scala example

Setup

Hudi works with Spark-2.x versions. You can follow instructions here for setting up spark. From the extracted directory run spark-shell with Hudi as:

// spark-shell
spark-2.4.4-bin-hadoop2.7/bin/spark-shell \
  --packages org.apache.hudi:hudi-spark-bundle_2.11:0.5.3,org.apache.spark:spark-avro_2.11:2.4.4 \
  --conf 'spark.serializer=org.apache.spark.serializer.KryoSerializer'

Please note the following:

  • spark-avro module needs to be specified in --packages as it is not included with spark-shell by default
  • spark-avro and spark versions must match (we have used 2.4.4 for both above)
  • we have used hudi-spark-bundle built for scala 2.11 since the spark-avro module used also depends on 2.11. If spark-avro_2.12 is used, correspondingly hudi-spark-bundle_2.12 needs to be used.

Setup table name, base path and a data generator to generate records for this guide.

// spark-shell
import org.apache.hudi.QuickstartUtils._
import scala.collection.JavaConversions._
import org.apache.spark.sql.SaveMode._
import org.apache.hudi.DataSourceReadOptions._
import org.apache.hudi.DataSourceWriteOptions._
import org.apache.hudi.config.HoodieWriteConfig._

val tableName = "hudi_trips_cow"
val basePath = "file:///tmp/hudi_trips_cow"
val dataGen = new DataGenerator

The DataGenerator can generate sample inserts and updates based on the the sample trip schema here

Insert data

Generate some new trips, load them into a DataFrame and write the DataFrame into the Hudi table as below.

// spark-shell
val inserts = convertToStringList(dataGen.generateInserts(10))
val df = spark.read.json(spark.sparkContext.parallelize(inserts, 2))
df.write.format("hudi").
  options(getQuickstartWriteConfigs).
  option(PRECOMBINE_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "ts").
  option(RECORDKEY_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "uuid").
  option(PARTITIONPATH_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "partitionpath").
  option(TABLE_NAME, tableName).
  mode(Overwrite).
  save(basePath)

mode(Overwrite) overwrites and recreates the table if it already exists. You can check the data generated under /tmp/hudi_trips_cow/<region>/<country>/<city>/. We provided a record key (uuid in schema), partition field (region/country/city) and combine logic (ts in schema) to ensure trip records are unique within each partition. For more info, refer to Modeling data stored in Hudi and for info on ways to ingest data into Hudi, refer to Writing Hudi Tables. Here we are using the default write operation : upsert. If you have a workload without updates, you can also issue insert or bulk_insert operations which could be faster. To know more, refer to Write operations

Query data

Load the data files into a DataFrame.

// spark-shell
val tripsSnapshotDF = spark.
  read.
  format("hudi").
  load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*")
//load(basePath) use "/partitionKey=partitionValue" folder structure for Spark auto partition discovery
tripsSnapshotDF.createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_snapshot")

spark.sql("select fare, begin_lon, begin_lat, ts from  hudi_trips_snapshot where fare > 20.0").show()
spark.sql("select _hoodie_commit_time, _hoodie_record_key, _hoodie_partition_path, rider, driver, fare from  hudi_trips_snapshot").show()

This query provides snapshot querying of the ingested data. Since our partition path (region/country/city) is 3 levels nested from base path we ve used load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*"). Refer to Table types and queries for more info on all table types and query types supported.

Update data

This is similar to inserting new data. Generate updates to existing trips using the data generator, load into a DataFrame and write DataFrame into the hudi table.

// spark-shell
val updates = convertToStringList(dataGen.generateUpdates(10))
val df = spark.read.json(spark.sparkContext.parallelize(updates, 2))
df.write.format("hudi").
  options(getQuickstartWriteConfigs).
  option(PRECOMBINE_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "ts").
  option(RECORDKEY_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "uuid").
  option(PARTITIONPATH_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "partitionpath").
  option(TABLE_NAME, tableName).
  mode(Append).
  save(basePath)

Notice that the save mode is now Append. In general, always use append mode unless you are trying to create the table for the first time. Querying the data again will now show updated trips. Each write operation generates a new commit denoted by the timestamp. Look for changes in _hoodie_commit_time, rider, driver fields for the same _hoodie_record_keys in previous commit.

Incremental query

Hudi also provides capability to obtain a stream of records that changed since given commit timestamp. This can be achieved using Hudi’s incremental querying and providing a begin time from which changes need to be streamed. We do not need to specify endTime, if we want all changes after the given commit (as is the common case).

// spark-shell
// reload data
spark.
  read.
  format("hudi").
  load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*").
  createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_snapshot")

val commits = spark.sql("select distinct(_hoodie_commit_time) as commitTime from  hudi_trips_snapshot order by commitTime").map(k => k.getString(0)).take(50)
val beginTime = commits(commits.length - 2) // commit time we are interested in

// incrementally query data
val tripsIncrementalDF = spark.read.format("hudi").
  option(QUERY_TYPE_OPT_KEY, QUERY_TYPE_INCREMENTAL_OPT_VAL).
  option(BEGIN_INSTANTTIME_OPT_KEY, beginTime).
  load(basePath)
tripsIncrementalDF.createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_incremental")

spark.sql("select `_hoodie_commit_time`, fare, begin_lon, begin_lat, ts from  hudi_trips_incremental where fare > 20.0").show()

This will give all changes that happened after the beginTime commit with the filter of fare > 20.0. The unique thing about this feature is that it now lets you author streaming pipelines on batch data.

Point in time query

Lets look at how to query data as of a specific time. The specific time can be represented by pointing endTime to a specific commit time and beginTime to “000” (denoting earliest possible commit time).

// spark-shell
val beginTime = "000" // Represents all commits > this time.
val endTime = commits(commits.length - 2) // commit time we are interested in

//incrementally query data
val tripsPointInTimeDF = spark.read.format("hudi").
  option(QUERY_TYPE_OPT_KEY, QUERY_TYPE_INCREMENTAL_OPT_VAL).
  option(BEGIN_INSTANTTIME_OPT_KEY, beginTime).
  option(END_INSTANTTIME_OPT_KEY, endTime).
  load(basePath)
tripsPointInTimeDF.createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_point_in_time")
spark.sql("select `_hoodie_commit_time`, fare, begin_lon, begin_lat, ts from hudi_trips_point_in_time where fare > 20.0").show()

Delete data

Delete records for the HoodieKeys passed in.

// spark-shell
// fetch total records count
spark.sql("select uuid, partitionPath from hudi_trips_snapshot").count()
// fetch two records to be deleted
val ds = spark.sql("select uuid, partitionPath from hudi_trips_snapshot").limit(2)

// issue deletes
val deletes = dataGen.generateDeletes(ds.collectAsList())
val df = spark.read.json(spark.sparkContext.parallelize(deletes, 2));
df.write.format("hudi").
  options(getQuickstartWriteConfigs).
  option(OPERATION_OPT_KEY,"delete").
  option(PRECOMBINE_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "ts").
  option(RECORDKEY_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "uuid").
  option(PARTITIONPATH_FIELD_OPT_KEY, "partitionpath").
  option(TABLE_NAME, tableName).
  mode(Append).
  save(basePath)

// run the same read query as above.
val roAfterDeleteViewDF = spark.
  read.
  format("hudi").
  load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*")
roAfterDeleteViewDF.registerTempTable("hudi_trips_snapshot")
// fetch should return (total - 2) records
spark.sql("select uuid, partitionPath from hudi_trips_snapshot").count()

Note: Only Append mode is supported for delete operation.

Pyspark example

Setup

Hudi works with Spark-2.x versions. You can follow instructions here for setting up spark. From the extracted directory run spark-shell with Hudi as:

# pyspark
export PYSPARK_PYTHON=$(which python3)
spark-2.4.4-bin-hadoop2.7/bin/pyspark \
  --packages org.apache.hudi:hudi-spark-bundle_2.11:0.5.3,org.apache.spark:spark-avro_2.11:2.4.4 \
  --conf 'spark.serializer=org.apache.spark.serializer.KryoSerializer'

Please note the following:

  • spark-avro module needs to be specified in --packages as it is not included with spark-shell by default
  • spark-avro and spark versions must match (we have used 2.4.4 for both above)
  • we have used hudi-spark-bundle built for scala 2.11 since the spark-avro module used also depends on 2.11. If spark-avro_2.12 is used, correspondingly hudi-spark-bundle_2.12 needs to be used.

Setup table name, base path and a data generator to generate records for this guide.

# pyspark
tableName = "hudi_trips_cow"
basePath = "file:///tmp/hudi_trips_cow"
dataGen = sc._jvm.org.apache.hudi.QuickstartUtils.DataGenerator()

The DataGenerator can generate sample inserts and updates based on the the sample trip schema here

Insert data

Generate some new trips, load them into a DataFrame and write the DataFrame into the Hudi table as below.

# pyspark
inserts = sc._jvm.org.apache.hudi.QuickstartUtils.convertToStringList(dataGen.generateInserts(10))
df = spark.read.json(spark.sparkContext.parallelize(inserts, 2))

hudi_options = {
  'hoodie.table.name': tableName,
  'hoodie.datasource.write.recordkey.field': 'uuid',
  'hoodie.datasource.write.partitionpath.field': 'partitionpath',
  'hoodie.datasource.write.table.name': tableName,
  'hoodie.datasource.write.operation': 'insert',
  'hoodie.datasource.write.precombine.field': 'ts',
  'hoodie.upsert.shuffle.parallelism': 2, 
  'hoodie.insert.shuffle.parallelism': 2
}

df.write.format("hudi"). \
  options(**hudi_options). \
  mode("overwrite"). \
  save(basePath)

mode(Overwrite) overwrites and recreates the table if it already exists. You can check the data generated under /tmp/hudi_trips_cow/<region>/<country>/<city>/. We provided a record key (uuid in schema), partition field (region/county/city) and combine logic (ts in schema) to ensure trip records are unique within each partition. For more info, refer to Modeling data stored in Hudi and for info on ways to ingest data into Hudi, refer to Writing Hudi Tables. Here we are using the default write operation : upsert. If you have a workload without updates, you can also issue insert or bulk_insert operations which could be faster. To know more, refer to Write operations

Query data

Load the data files into a DataFrame.

# pyspark
tripsSnapshotDF = spark. \
  read. \
  format("hudi"). \
  load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*")
# load(basePath) use "/partitionKey=partitionValue" folder structure for Spark auto partition discovery

tripsSnapshotDF.createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_snapshot")

spark.sql("select fare, begin_lon, begin_lat, ts from  hudi_trips_snapshot where fare > 20.0").show()
spark.sql("select _hoodie_commit_time, _hoodie_record_key, _hoodie_partition_path, rider, driver, fare from  hudi_trips_snapshot").show()

This query provides snapshot querying of the ingested data. Since our partition path (region/country/city) is 3 levels nested from base path we ve used load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*"). Refer to Table types and queries for more info on all table types and query types supported.

Update data

This is similar to inserting new data. Generate updates to existing trips using the data generator, load into a DataFrame and write DataFrame into the hudi table.

# pyspark
updates = sc._jvm.org.apache.hudi.QuickstartUtils.convertToStringList(dataGen.generateUpdates(10))
df = spark.read.json(spark.sparkContext.parallelize(updates, 2))
df.write.format("hudi"). \
  options(**hudi_options). \
  mode("append"). \
  save(basePath)

Notice that the save mode is now Append. In general, always use append mode unless you are trying to create the table for the first time. Querying the data again will now show updated trips. Each write operation generates a new commit denoted by the timestamp. Look for changes in _hoodie_commit_time, rider, driver fields for the same _hoodie_record_keys in previous commit.

Incremental query

Hudi also provides capability to obtain a stream of records that changed since given commit timestamp. This can be achieved using Hudi’s incremental querying and providing a begin time from which changes need to be streamed. We do not need to specify endTime, if we want all changes after the given commit (as is the common case).

# pyspark
# reload data
spark. \
  read. \
  format("hudi"). \
  load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*"). \
  createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_snapshot")

commits = list(map(lambda row: row[0], spark.sql("select distinct(_hoodie_commit_time) as commitTime from  hudi_trips_snapshot order by commitTime").limit(50).collect()))
beginTime = commits[len(commits) - 2] # commit time we are interested in

# incrementally query data
incremental_read_options = {
  'hoodie.datasource.query.type': 'incremental',
  'hoodie.datasource.read.begin.instanttime': beginTime,
}

tripsIncrementalDF = spark.read.format("hudi"). \
  options(**incremental_read_options). \
  load(basePath)
tripsIncrementalDF.createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_incremental")

spark.sql("select `_hoodie_commit_time`, fare, begin_lon, begin_lat, ts from  hudi_trips_incremental where fare > 20.0").show()

This will give all changes that happened after the beginTime commit with the filter of fare > 20.0. The unique thing about this feature is that it now lets you author streaming pipelines on batch data.

Point in time query

Lets look at how to query data as of a specific time. The specific time can be represented by pointing endTime to a specific commit time and beginTime to “000” (denoting earliest possible commit time).

# pyspark
beginTime = "000" # Represents all commits > this time.
endTime = commits[len(commits) - 2]

# query point in time data
point_in_time_read_options = {
  'hoodie.datasource.query.type': 'incremental',
  'hoodie.datasource.read.end.instanttime': endTime,
  'hoodie.datasource.read.begin.instanttime': beginTime
}

tripsPointInTimeDF = spark.read.format("hudi"). \
  options(**point_in_time_read_options). \
  load(basePath)

tripsPointInTimeDF.createOrReplaceTempView("hudi_trips_point_in_time")
spark.sql("select `_hoodie_commit_time`, fare, begin_lon, begin_lat, ts from hudi_trips_point_in_time where fare > 20.0").show()

Delete data

Delete records for the HoodieKeys passed in.

Note: Only Append mode is supported for delete operation.

# pyspark
# fetch total records count
spark.sql("select uuid, partitionPath from hudi_trips_snapshot").count()
# fetch two records to be deleted
ds = spark.sql("select uuid, partitionPath from hudi_trips_snapshot").limit(2)

# issue deletes
hudi_delete_options = {
  'hoodie.table.name': tableName,
  'hoodie.datasource.write.recordkey.field': 'uuid',
  'hoodie.datasource.write.partitionpath.field': 'partitionpath',
  'hoodie.datasource.write.table.name': tableName,
  'hoodie.datasource.write.operation': 'delete',
  'hoodie.datasource.write.precombine.field': 'ts',
  'hoodie.upsert.shuffle.parallelism': 2, 
  'hoodie.insert.shuffle.parallelism': 2
}

from pyspark.sql.functions import lit
deletes = list(map(lambda row: (row[0], row[1]), ds.collect()))
df = spark.sparkContext.parallelize(deletes).toDF(['uuid', 'partitionpath']).withColumn('ts', lit(0.0))
df.write.format("hudi"). \
  options(**hudi_delete_options). \
  mode("append"). \
  save(basePath)

# run the same read query as above.
roAfterDeleteViewDF = spark. \
  read. \
  format("hudi"). \
  load(basePath + "/*/*/*/*") 
roAfterDeleteViewDF.registerTempTable("hudi_trips_snapshot")
# fetch should return (total - 2) records
spark.sql("select uuid, partitionPath from hudi_trips_snapshot").count()

Where to go from here?

You can also do the quickstart by building hudi yourself, and using --jars <path to hudi_code>/packaging/hudi-spark-bundle/target/hudi-spark-bundle_2.11-*.*.*-SNAPSHOT.jar in the spark-shell command above instead of --packages org.apache.hudi:hudi-spark-bundle_2.11:0.5.3. Hudi also supports scala 2.12. Refer build with scala 2.12 for more info.

Also, we used Spark here to show case the capabilities of Hudi. However, Hudi can support multiple table types/query types and Hudi tables can be queried from query engines like Hive, Spark, Presto and much more. We have put together a demo video that show cases all of this on a docker based setup with all dependent systems running locally. We recommend you replicate the same setup and run the demo yourself, by following steps here to get a taste for it. Also, if you are looking for ways to migrate your existing data to Hudi, refer to migration guide.

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